Friday, February 4, 2011

fact of punjab

   Punjab is popular for its rich heritage and culture. Punjab tourism is one of the highlights of North India tourism. A land sanctified by saints and gurus and scarred by wars, Punjab forms an ideal tourist destination for people fascinated by culture, heritage and spirituality. The state is home to many archeological treasures. The best thing about Punjab is its beautiful blend of heritage and culture with modernity.

Punjab is located in the northwest region of India. It is bordered by the states of Jammu and Kashmir in the North, Pakistan in the west, Rajasthan and Haryana in the south east and Himachal Pradesh in the north east. Punjab is known as the land of five rivers. Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum are the five rivers flowing through the state.

Geographically, Punjab is divided into two regions, the Shivaliks and the Plains. The Punjab Shivalik region covers the outer part of the Shivalik ranges and span up to ten kilometers in width. The area mostly consists of clays, silts and conglomerates. The Punjab plain is a part of the Indo Gangetic plains. The plains lie between 180 to 300 meters above sea level.
Area : 50362 square kilometers (Punjab occupies 1.54 % of the country’s total geographical area.)
Location : Punjab is situated in the northwest of India, it is bordered by Pakistan on the west, the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Himachal Pradesh on its northeast and Haryana and Rajasthan to its south.
Geography : Find Punjab on the globe at 29’30’’ N to 32’32’’ N latitude and 73’55 E to 76’50 E longitude.Capital : Chandigarh
Languages Spoken : Punjabi and Hindi are the main languages for communication, but now English has also taken over in the Big cities of punjab. Many people are fluent in English. Urdu is also one of the languages among the people.
Currency : An Indian Rupee (100 paise equals one rupee)
State Animal : Black Buck - Locally called kala hiran, the Black Buck is a graceful antelope is blessed with a striking colour and spiralled horns. The fawn’s coat is yellowish but it becomes turns black at maturity. It is found in the plains and avoid forests and hilly tracks. Mostly found in herds of 20-30, large herds may number several hundreds. With a keen eyesight and speed, it responds to alarm call by leaps and bounds.
State Bird: Baz (Eastern Goshawk)
State Tree: Shisham
Climate : Climatically the state has three major seasons. Hot weather ( April to June) when temperature rises as high as 110 F. Rainy season ( July to September ) . Average rainfall annual ranges between 96 cms sub-mountain region and 58 cms in the plains. Cold weather ( October to March ). Temperature goes down as low as 40F.
Major Land Features : Most of Punjab is a fertile plain; toward the southeast one finds semi-arid and desert landscape; a belt of undulating hills extends along the northeast at the foot of the Himalayas. Four rivers, the Ravi, Beas, Satluj and Ghaggar flow across the state in a southwesterly direction. They have numerous small and seasonal tributaries. In addition, Punjab is watered by an extensive canal system.
Punjab is an extensive, flat plain, hemmed in by high mountain walls on the north and west, and open to the south and east. The area, considered as a whole, presents the appearance of a gently sloping plain, leading from the high mountains on the north to the sandy deserts on the south. The great cities of Lahore and Amritsar are each 900 feet above the level of the sea.The flat plains of the Punjab : Variety of Features The land of five rivers presents a great variety of features. Traversing the northern tracts, the traveller would regard the Punjab as the garden of India; but, as he/she approaches the south, the barren sandy plateau to the south-westand the wastes of Hissar to the south-east present a strange scene to his/her view. The traveller sees interminable wastes, the wildest prairies overgrown with grass and scrub.
Salt Resource : The great salt range of the Punjab, springing from the root of the Sufed Koh, extends eastward to the Indus, which it crosses at Kalabagh, and terminates somewhat abruptly on the right bank of the river Jhelum. The range contains inexhaustible veins of rock-salt, deposits of chloride of sodium, formed og frass wacke, limestone sandstone, gypsum and red tenacious clay. The salt range produces, besides the mineral that gives it its name, antimony, alum and sulphur.
Climate of Punjab : The climate of the Punjab presents extremes of heat and cold. In the regions extending along the southern base of the Himalayas, the south-west monsoon blows, and the rainfall is abundant. But in places distant from both the hills and the seat the heat is excessive and very little rain falls. The monsoon season lasts from the middle of June to the end of September. The hot weather proper begins with April. The heat in the summer is intense; scorching winds blow, the earth is parched, vegetation withers, and many trees are shorn of their leaves.
Extreme Heat : In Multan, in the extreme south-west, the heat is so oppressive as to be preverbial. At Lahore, the thermometer has been known to rise to 112 degrees in a tent artificially cooled. In June, when the heat is intense, great piles of clouds appear and the south-west monsoon bursts with little warning. With thunder and lightning come furious storms of wind, and this war of the elements is followed by heavy torrents or rain, which cool the atmostphere and make the vegetation green.
Fruits of Punjab : Except in the hills, Punjab contains comparatively little that is indigenous. There are no natural forests in the plains; extensive tracts occur covered only with grass, shrubs and bushes. The mango is largely cultivated in the south-east of the Punjab and attains a high degree of perfection about Multan and Hoshiarpur. Cultivated fruit trees are abundant, such as orange, pomegranate, apple, peach, fig, mulberry, quince, apricot, almond, and plum.
Animals of Punjab : The animals of the land of five rivers has the reputation of being richer and more varied than its flora. Tigers are still found in the forests of the hills, and the lion was once not uncommon. The other beasts are leopards, panthers, hyaenas, lynxes, wolves, bears, jackals, foxes, stoats, and martens. There are also nilgais, antelopes, deer, goats, wild boar, porcupines, monkeys, and bats. The feathered tribes include parrots, peafowl, junglefowl, pheasants, eagles, vultures, hawks, quails, pelicans, waterfowl, cranes, herons, hoopoos, and doves. Among poisonous snakes the most remarkable are the cobra, and a small snake, the sangehur, the bit of which causes instantaneous death. The rivers are infested with alligators, and fish of various species abound. The silkworm is reared with great skill and industry, and bees produce abundant wax and honey. Camels thrive in the hot southern plains, and herds of buffaloes on the grazing lands adjoining the rivers. Horses of excellent quality are reared in the north-east part of the country.
Agricultural : Products Of agricultural products, sugercan is grown everywhere in the fertile tracts and indigo in the low southern regions, borth being largely exported towards Sindh and Kabul. Cotton is produced and exported in large quantities. Wheat and maize are extensively cultivated. The other articles of produce are buckwheat, rice, barley, millet; oil-seeds, such as sesamum and mustard, various sorts of vetches, carrots, pease, beans, onions, turnips, cucubmbers, and melons.
Irrigation : Extensive irrigation is carried on by means of canals and the Persian wheel is employed to draw water from the wells. Wheat, gram and barley are grown in the spring, and Indian corn, rice, cotton, pulses, indigo, and sugercane is the autumn. Wheat is largely produced in the divisions of Lahore, Amritsar, Jalandhar, and Rawalpindi. The largest areas under cotton cultivation are found in the districts of Lahore, Ambala, Gurgaon and Rawalpindi. The chief sugar producing districts are Sialkot, Gurdaspur, Jalandhar, Hoshiapur, and Ambala. Indigo is almost entirely confined to the districts of Multan, Mozaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan. Tea is grown in the hill tracts of Simla and Kangra.